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Charmion von Wiegand (1896-1983)


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Untitled, 1945 gouache on paper 16 7/8 x 14 3/4 in...

Untitled, 1945
gouache on paper
16 7/8 x 14 3/4 inches / 42.9 x 37.5 cm

To The Adi Buddha, c.1960-70 oil on canvas 50 x 27...

To The Adi Buddha, c.1960-70

oil on canvas

50 x 27 inches

signed

The Chakras, 1963 gouache on paper 30 x 22 1/4 inc...

The Chakras, 1963

gouache on paper

30 x 22 1/4 inches

signed

Gouache #230: Table of Offerings, 1965-66 gouache...

Gouache #230: Table of Offerings, 1965-66

gouache on paper

30 x 22 1/4 inches

signed

Vajrayana, 1969 oil on canvas 48 x 36 inches signe...

Vajrayana, 1969

oil on canvas

48 x 36 inches

signed


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Artist Information

“Interior painting starts with the sign. In its initial states it is exorcism—a means of conquering the unknown. It is the oracle, the divination, the symbol of power, evolving from subjective states and moving towards their objective embodiments in a single plastic image.”[i]

Known for her vibrant, geometric paintings that originate a deeply personal language of spiritual enlightenment expressed through a constructivist mode of abstraction, Charmion von Wiegand (1896–1983) was born in Chicago but spent much of her childhood traveling. The daughter of a journalist for Hearst, von Wiegand eventually settled in New York in 1915 to attend Barnard College and Columbia University, where she took classes at the School of Journalism while nurturing a growing interest in art history. In 1925, von Wiegand realized that she wanted to be an artist and set up a studio in Greenwich Village, teaching herself how to paint while pursuing a career as a journalist. In 1929, she secured a position in Moscow as a foreign correspondent for Hearst, the only woman at the desk at the time.

In 1932, von Wiegand returned to New York and married Russian émigré Joseph Freeman, who co-founded and edited the leftist journal New Masses. Von Wiegand began writing art criticism for New Masses as well as for other publications, including New TheatreARTnews, and Arts Magazine. When the Abstract American Artists (AAA) held their inaugural exhibition, von Wiegand reviewed it. An early champion of abstract art, von Wiegand became close friends with AAA founder Carl Holty. In 1941, Holty introduced von Wiegand to Piet Mondrian, who would have a profound impact on her art. Fascinated by Mondrian’s artistic philosophy, von Wiegand played a key role in the introduction of his work to American audiences, translating many of the Dutch artist’s writings into English and assisting in the composition of his influential article “Toward the True Vision of Reality” (1941). Through her friendship with Mondrian, von Wiegand re-kindled her interest in Theosophy (a religion established in the late 19th century that combines aspects of Hinduism, Buddhism, occultism, and esotericism) and embarked on an extended study of neoplasticism. In her artwork, she incorporated Mondrian’s iconic grid but rejected the constraints of pure neoplasticism and embraced a wide range of influences including surrealism and German expressionism.

In 1942, von Wiegand became a member of the AAA, exhibiting regularly with the group and eventually serving as its president from 1951 to 1953. In the late 1940s, sculptor and fellow AAA member Ibram Lassaw gave her a translation of The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life, which inspired von Wiegand to immerse herself in a study of Buddhist art. She began incorporating Buddhist 


[i] Statement from brochure for exhibition organized by Ray Johnson at Sid Deutsch Gallery, New York, 1977.

 

motifs such as stupas and mandalas into her paintings, and her spiritual practice steadily intensified throughout the 1950s. In 1953, her husband gifted her a copy of the Taoist I Ching Book of Changes, a guide for divining meaning from randomly derived numbers arranged in a hexagram—a form the artist readily incorporated into her painting. Von Wiegand’s study of Theosophy also intensified over these years, bolstered by her increased access to the religion’s primary sources composed by the religion’s founders and their successors at the New York Theosophical Society’s library. Von Wiegand’s search for the sacred and transcendent ultimately led her to Tibetan Buddhism and, in 1967, von Wiegand met Khyongla Rato Rinpoche, a Gelugpa monk who had recently arrived in New York, who would mentor her spiritual study in the tradition of Mahayana Buddhism until her death. Her travels in the 1960s and 1970s took her to Tibet and India, where she had an audience with the Dalai Lama, who was living in exile in Dharamsala. Many works from these decades incorporate symbols and schematics drawn from Theosophical prismatic color charts, Chinese astrology and tantric yoga.

In 1978, she was the subject of a PBS documentary titled The Circle of Charmion von Wiegand, which was scored by Philip Glass. In 1980, von Wiegand was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters and in 1982, the Bass Museum of Art in Miami Beach (FL) organized her first retrospective exhibition. She died the following year in New York, bequeathing her estate to Khyongla Rato and the Tibet Center of New York. In 1998, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery became the sole representative of her estate and has presented her work in four solo and multiple group exhibitions. Recent notable exhibitions that have included her work are The Third Mind: American Artists Contemplate Asia (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY, 2009) and Constructive Spirit: Abstract Art in South and North America (Newark Museum, NJ, 2010). In 2023, the Kunstmuseum Basel (Switzerland) will stage the first comprehensive museum retrospective of von Wiegand’s work in Europe.

Von Wiegand’s work is represented in numerous museum collections including the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy (Andover, MA); Albright-Knox Art Gallery (Buffalo, NY); Arithmeum, University of Bonn (Germany); Birmingham Museum of Art (Alabama); Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin; Brooklyn Museum (NY); Carnegie Museum of Art (Pittsburgh, PA); The Cleveland Museum of Art (OH); Indianapolis Museum of Art (IN); Fondazione Marguerite Arp (Locarno, Switzerland); Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Massachusetts); The Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, NY); The Museum of Modern Art (New York, NY); Newark Museum of Art (New Jersey); Seattle Art Museum (WA); Smithsonian American Art Museum (Washington, DC); Walker Art Center (Minneapolis, MN); Weatherspoon Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Wellin Museum of Art at Hamilton College (Clinton, NY); Whitney Museum of American Art (New York, NY); and Yale University Art Gallery (New Haven, CT).

SELECTED MUSEUM COLLECTIONS

Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Arithmeum, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
The Baker Museum, Artis—Naples, Naples, FL
Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, AL
Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX
Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY
Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, PA
Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, OH
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH
The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens, Jacksonville, FL
Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, IA
Fondazione Marguerite Arp, Locarno, Switzerland
Grey Art Gallery, New York University, New York, NY
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of Art, New York, NY
Herbert F. Johnson Museum, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY
Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI
The Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, NJ
Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, South Hadley, MA
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
The National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC
Newark Museum, Newark, NJ
Palmer Museum of Art, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC
Snite Museum of Art, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
Springfield Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, MA
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN
Weatherspoon Art Museum, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

1942
Rose Fried Gallery, New York, NY; 1947, 48

1947
Charmion von Wiegand, The Pinacotheca, New York, NY, April 21-May 10, 1947

1952
Saidenberg Gallery, New York, NY

1954
Citadella d’Arte Internazionale e d’Avanguardia, Ascona; 1955, 58, 59
Zoe Dusanne Gallery, New York, NY; 1955

1956
John Heller Gallery, New York, NY

1961
Howard Wise Gallery, New York, NY

1963
Howard Wise Gallery, New York, NY

1964
Charmion von Wiegand, Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago, IL, April
Charmion von Wiegand, Howard Wise Gallery, New York, NY, April 27-May 15

1965
Howard Wise Gallery, New York, NY

1969
Gallery 17, University of Texas Art Museum, Austin, TX

1970
Birmingham Art Museum, Birmingham, AL

1973
Galeria Flamma Vigo, Rome, Italy

1974
Annely Juda Fine Art, London, England
Noah Goldowsky Gallery, New York

1975
Andre Zarre Gallery, New York, NY; 1977, 87, 89

1978
Thirty Years of Collage, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY

1981
Charmion von Wiegand and Her Circle, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY

1982
Charmion von Wiegand: Her Art and Her Life, Bass Museum of Art, Miami Beach, FL

1985
Retrospective Exhibition, 1945-65, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY

1990
Charmion von Wiegand: Paintings, Drawing, Collages, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY, February 9-March 14
Perri-Reneth Gallery, Southampton, NY

1993
Charmion von Wiegand: In Search of the Spiritual, Joseloff Gallery, Hartford Art School, University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT

1998
Charmion Von Wiegand: Spirit & Form: Collages, 1946-1962, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

2000
Charmion Von Wiegand: Spirituality in Abstraction, 1945-1969, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

2003
Charmion Von Wiegand: Improvisations, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

2007
Charmion Von Wiegand: From Mondrian to Mantra, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY, March 15-May 12

2022      
Charmion Von Wiegand: Coloring Modernism, Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel, Switzerland

1945
The Women, Art of This Century, New York, NY

1947
American Abstract Artist Exhibition, Riverside Museum, New York, NY

1948
American Abstract Artist Exhibition, Chinese Gallery Limited, New York, NY

1949
American Abstract Artists 13th Annual Exhibition, Riverside Museum, New York, NY; Boise Art Association, Boise, ID; State College of Washington (now Washington State University), Pullman, WA; Fine Arts Gallery (now Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Mills College Art Gallery (now Mills College Art Museum), Mills College, Oakland, CA

1950 
14th Exhibition of American Abstract Artists, New School for Social Research, New York, NY, March 15-31
Salon des Realties Nouvelles, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France, June 10-July 15 (catalogue)

1952
American Watercolors, Drawings and Prints, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY

1953
The Classic Tradition in Contemporary Art, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN

1955
Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

1957
21st Annual Exhibition: American Abstract Artists, The Contemporaries, New York, NY
Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
Pure Abstract Painting Exhibition, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT
The Sphere of Mondrian, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX
1957 Annual Exhibition: Sculpture, Paintings, Watercolors, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

1959
Abstract American Artists, Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, NY
1959 North Carolina Artists’ Exhibition with Fifteen Invited Works, North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC

1960
Construction and Geometry in Painting: From Malevich to "Tomorrow", Galerie Chalette, New York, NY; Contemporary Art Center, Cincinnati; The Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN
Konkrete Kunst: Fifty Years of Development, Kunstgesellschaft, Zurich, Switzerland
American Federation of Arts, New York, NY

1961
American Federation of Arts, New York, NY

1962
The Art of Assemblage, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
Geometric Abstraction in America, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

1963
28th Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary Painting, The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
Art and Writing, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Holland; Staatliche Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden, Holland
Recent Acquisitions, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
The Classic Spirit in Twentieth Century Art, Sydney Janis Gallery, New York, NY

1964
Classic Spirit in 20th Century Art, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, NY, February
Mondrian, de Stijl and Their Impact, Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, New York, NY, April
Post-War Collage, International, St. Etienne Museum, France, June
Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
American Abstract Artists Annual Exhibition, Loeb Center, New York University, New York, NY
Women Artists of America, 1707-1964, The Newark Museum, Newark, NJ
Second Annual Summer Show, The Art Dealers Association of America, Park-Bernet Galleries, New York, NY

1965
American Abstract Artists Annual Exhibition, Riverside Museum, New York, NY

1967
Art on Paper, Weatherspoon Art Gallery, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC
Yesterday and Today, 1936 to 1966, Riverside Museum, New York, NY

1968
Tenth Anniversary Exhibition, New York University Collection, New York, NY
Ornament Tendenzen in der Zeitgenossischen Malerei, Berlin Zehlendorf, Leverkusen, Schloss Wolfsburg
Plus by Minus, Today’s Half-Century, Albright-Knox Gallery, Buffalo, NY
The Square in Painting, organized by American Federation of the Arts

1969
Sixth Biennale: National Religious Art, Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI
Recent Acquisitions, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

1970
150 Paintings from the New York University Collection, Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, NY
American Abstract Artists Annual Exhibition, Loeb Center, New York University, New York, NY

1971
Ciba-Geigy Collection, Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, NY

1972
The Non-Objective World, 1939-1955, Annely Juda Fine Art, London, England; Galerie Liatowitsch,
Basel Switzerland; Galleria Milano, Milan, Italy
American Abstract Artists Annual Exhibition, Loeb Center, New York University, New York, NY
American Woman Artist Show, GEDOK Gemeinschaft der Künstlerinnen und Kunstfreunde Hamburg, Kunsthaus Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

1973
The Non-Objective World, 1914-1955, Annely Juda Fine Art, London, England; The University of Texas Art Museum, Austin, TX
Post-Mondrian Abstraction in America, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL

1974
De Stijl, Cercle et Carre, Galerie Gmurzynska, Cologne, Germany

1975
Three American Purists: Mason, Miles, von Wiegand, Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, MA

1977
Paris - New York, Musee National d’Arte Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

1978
Geometric Abstraction and Related Works, Newark Museum, Newark, NJ

1979
The Language of Abstraction, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY and Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, NY
Mondrian and Neo-Plasticism in America, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT
Constructivism and the Geometric Tradition: Selections from the McCrory Corporation Collection,
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY; Dallas Museum Fine Arts, Dallas, TX; San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, CA; La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, La Jolla, CA; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA; Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, PA; Nelson-Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, MO; Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI; Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI
Collage: American Masters, Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, NJ

1981
CIBA-GEIGY Collects: Aspects of Abstraction, Sewall Art Gallery (now Rice University Art Gallery), Rice University, Houston, TX

1982
Abstraction in Action, City Gallery of the Division of Cultural Affairs, New York, NY
Honor Awards Exhibition, National Women’s Caucus for Art Conference, New York

1983      
Yves Saint Laurent: 25 Years of Design, curated by Diana Vreeland, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY

1985
Contrasts of Form:Geometric Abstract Art, 1910-1980, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
The Severe & the Romantic: Geometric Humanism in American Painting, 50s & 80s, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY

1986
American Abstract Artists: Works from the Permanent Collection, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY

1989
Abstractions: Past and Present, Andre Zarre Gallery, New York, NY, July 8-August 4.
Abstraction, Geometry, Painting: Selected Geometric Abstract Painting in America Since 1945, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY; Center for the Fine Arts (now Pérez Art Museum Miami), Miami, FL; Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI; Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT

The Patricia and Philip Frost Collection, American Abstraction 1930-1945, National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

1991 
Post-War Geometric Concepts, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY
The Second Wave: American Abstraction of the 1930s and 1940s, Selections from the Penny and Elton
Yasuna Collection, Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, MA; Samual P. Harn Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, DE

1992
Between Mondrian and Minimalism: Neo-Plasticism in America, Whitney Museum of American Art Downtown Branch at Federal Reserve Plaza, New York, NY
Sonia Delauney & Charmion von Wiegand: Works on Paper, Marilyn Pearl Gallery, New York, NY

1994
On Paper: Abstraction in American Art, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

1995
1945: The End of the War, Annely Juda Fine Art,
London, England; Denise Rene, Paris, France; Galerie
Hans Mayer, Dusseldorf, Germany
Referencing Mondrian No.1, Washburn Gallery, New York, NY

1996
Abstraction Across America, 1934-1946, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY
The Geometric Tradition in American Art, Meyerson & Nowinski Gallery, New York, NY

1997
Geometric Abstraction: 1937-1997, Snyder Fine Art, New York, NY

1998
Defining the Edge: Early American Abstraction, Selections from the Collection of Dr. Peter B. Fischer,
Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY; Laguna Art Museum, Laguna Beach, CA
American Abstract Art of the 1930s and 1940s: The J. Donald Nichols Collection, Wake Forest
University Fine Arts Gallery, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC

2000
Pasted Pictures: Collage and Abstraction in the Twentieth Century, Knoedler & Company, New York, NY
Michael Rosenfeld Gallery: The First Decade, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

2001
Rupture & Revision: Collage in America, Pavel Zoubok, Inc, New York, NY
1950-1965: Works on Paper, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

2002
Early American Abstraction: Small Scale – Large Dimension, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

2004
Modern American Painting from the NYU Collection, Lewis Glucksman Gallery, University College Cork, Ireland
Mood Indigo: The Legacy of Duke Ellington - A Look at Jazz & Improvisation in American Art, Michael Rosenfeld  Gallery, New York, NY, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, NY

2005
Another View: New York School, Opalka Gallery, The Sage Colleges, Albany, NY

2006
Paper Works by Abstract Masters, Anita Shapolsky Gallery, New York, NY
Coming of Age:  American Art, 1850s to 1950s, Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA; Meadows Museum of Art, Dallas, TX; Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, England; Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy

2008
New York Cool:  Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection, Grey Art Gallery, New York University, New York, NY; Palmer Museum of Art, Pennsylvania State University, PA; University of Iowa Museum of At, Iowa City, IA; Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME; Hunter Museum of American Art, Chattanooga, TN

2009
The Third Mind: American Artists Contemplate Asia, 1860-1989, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
Back to the Future: Alfred Jensen, Charmion von Wiegand, Simon Gouverneur and the Cosmic Conversation, Loyola University Museum of Art, Chicago, IL
Daughters of the Revolution: Women in Collage, Pavel Zoubok Gallery, New York, NY

2010
Constructive Spirit: Abstract Art in South and North America, 1920s–1950s, Newark Museum, Newark, NJ
The Shape of Abstraction, Boston University Art Gallery, Boston, MA
Grain of Emptiness: Buddhist Inspired Contemporary Art: Sanford Biggers, Theaster Gates, Atta Kim, Wolfgang Laib & Charmion von Weigand, Rubin Museum of Art, New York, NY

2011
Splendor of Dynamic Structure: Celebrating 75 Years of the American Abstract Artists, Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Fragments: Modern and Contemporary Collage, ACA Galleries, New York, NY

2012
To be a Lady: Forty-five Women in the Arts, 1285 Avenue of the Americas Art Gallery, New York, NY
MinMax: Minimalist Themes in a Maximalist Collection, Allan Stone Gallery, New York, NY
Affinity Atlas, The Ruth and Elmer Wellin Museum of Art, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY
INsite/INchelsea: The Inaugural Exhibition, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery LLC, New York, NY

2016
The Onward of Art American Abstract Artists 80th Anniversary Exhibition, 1285 Avenue of the Americas Art Gallery, New York, NY

2017
The Time Is N♀w, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery LLC, New York, NY

2018
200 Jahre Unversität Bonn – 200 Werke aus der Sammlung Arithmeum, Arithmeum, University of Bonn, Bonn Germany
Celebrating 50 Years of the US Open Championships, United States Tennis Association (USTA) President’s Suite, Arthur Ashe Stadium, Flushing Meadows, NY

2019
Seeing America, Newark Museum, Newark, NJ
“Non-Brand (非品牌),” curated by Cai Guo-Qiang, Artistic License: Six Takes on the Guggenheim Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
Spiritual by Nature, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery LLC, New York, NY
Women Take the Floor, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA

2020
Paper Power, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery LLC, New York, NY
City of Tomorrow: Ginny Wright and the Art That Shaped a New Seattle, Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA
Expanding Abstraction: Pushing the Boundaries of Painting in the Americas, 1958-1983, Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX

2021
Making a Mark: American Women Artists, The Baker Museum, Artis—Naples, Naples, FL
Distinctive/Instinctive: Postwar Abstract Painting, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery LLC, New York, NY
Labyrinth of Forms: Women and Abstraction, 1930-1950, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY

Hassan Speicher Fund Purchase, American Academy of Arts and Letters

1980
Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters

1982
National Women’s Caucus for Art Conference, New York

1978
The Circle of Charmion von Wiegand, PBS, November 4, 1978; Produced and narrated by Ce Roser; Co-
Produced by Fay Lansner; Directed by Mark Brownstone; Music by Philip Glass.